南宁食用油价格联盟

橄榄油为什么对心脏健康不利?(一)

只看楼主 收藏 回复
  • - -
楼主
  

Why Olive Oil Is Not Healthy for Your Heart

橄榄油为什么对心脏健康不利?

 

原文网址:https://www.forksoverknives.com/why-olive-oil-is-not-healthy-for-your-heart/

 

原文作者:Rosane Oliveira, DVM, PhD

 

 

Olives conjure up images of the warm sun and deep blue seas of the Mediterranean, where the olive tree flourishes. In more recent times, olive oil has enjoyed similar admiration.

看到橄榄,我们的脑海中就会浮现出地中海的图景,温暖的阳光,蔚蓝的大海,在这里,橄榄树茂盛生长。最近这些年来,橄榄油也同样让人们如此神往。

 

Considered by many as a staple in any serious kitchen, olive oil has also achieved mythic stature as the ultimate healthy ingredient, protecting us from heart disease. But does olive oil really deserve its heart-healthy reputation?

很多认真做饭的人都把橄榄油作为主打,使橄榄油赢得了终极健康食材的神话般地位,以为它可以保护我们远离心脏病。然而,在心脏健康的声誉上,橄榄油名副其实么?

 

Like any other oil, olive oil is a processed, concentrated fat extract and thus has lost most of the nutritional value of its original form (the olive itself). If you want nutritional value, you will find it by eating the whole olive—not by consuming it in its almost unrecognizable extracted oil form. (But even olives should be eaten in moderation due to their high fat and sodium content.)

跟其他任何食用油一样,橄榄油是一种深加工、浓缩的脂肪提取物,因此,其原始形态(橄榄本身)的营养价值,大多数都流失了。如果你想要营养价值,吃完整的橄榄就会得到——而不是以几乎让人辨认不出的榨油形式。(不过,即使是橄榄,由于其高脂高钠,也应该节制食用。)

 

The bottom line is that the fats we need should come in nature’s original package—whole plant foods!

最终结论是:我们所需的脂肪应来自天然的原初完整食物——整全植物性食物!

 

A Quick Lesson in Cardiovascular Health

心血管健康速读

 

To evaluate whether or not olive oil is indeed heart-healthy, we first need to understand a few facts about vascular biology.

要衡量橄榄油是否真的有益心脏健康,我们首先需要来了解血管生理方面的几个事实。

 

The vessels in our entire cardiovascular system are lined with highly functional endothelial cells. These cells provide a barrier between the blood and the rest of the body tissues and are involved in blood clotting, the formation of new blood vessels, and recruitment of immune defense cells. Endothelial cells also produce nitric oxide, which makes blood vessels dilate to increase blood flow and prevent platelets from sticking to the vessel walls.

人体整个心血管系统中的血管,都衬有高度功能化的内皮细胞。这些细胞,在血液和人体其他组织之间提供了一道屏障,它们还参与血液凝结、心血管的形成和免疫防御细胞的恢复等。内皮细胞还生成一氧化氮,让血管舒张,增强血流,并防止血小板粘附在血管壁上。

 

Impaired endothelial function is a hallmark of vascular disease, considered an early event in the development of atherosclerosis, and seen in patients with high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes.

内皮细胞受损是血管疾病的标志,可视为动脉粥样硬化发展中的早期迹象,可见于高血压、高胆固醇、冠状动脉疾病和2型糖尿病患者中。

 

A noninvasive method to test endothelial function is Flow Mediated Dilation (FMD), which uses ultrasound to measure flow-mediated changes in the diameter of the brachial artery. Healthy endothelial cells will respond to a stimulus by releasing nitric oxide and causing the brachial artery to dilate, while unhealthy cells will not. In other words, the level of dilation, measured via ultrasound, is a good indication of the overall health of the vessels in the cardiovascular system.

一种测试内皮功能的非侵入式方法是流量介导扩张法(FMD),该法运用超声波来测量肱动脉直径的流量介导变化。健康的内皮细胞会对刺激产生反应,释放一氧化氮,引起肱动脉扩张,而不健康的细胞却不能。换言之,通过超声波测量到的扩张水平,是心血管系统中血管总体健康的一个良好指标。

 

Olive Oil and the Heart

橄榄油与心脏

 

Not surprising, significant FMD impairment can be seen after someone smokes or eats a lot of fat, sugar, and/or salt in a meal. FMD impairment is also detected when someone suffers from mental stress or a chronic disease like high cholesterol or diabetes.

毫不奇怪,在某人抽烟或大吃一顿脂肪、精制糖和/或盐后,可以看到明显的FMD损伤。在某人遭受精神压力或高胆固醇或糖尿病等慢性疾病后,也会检测到FMD损伤。

 

So what is the effect of olive oil on FMD? All oils, both animal and plant derived, tend to worsen endothelial function. Within hours of ingesting fat, arteries stiffen and the ability to dilate is impaired. A 1999 study measuring FMD after the ingestion of high-fat meals reported a “three-hour decline in FMD after subjects ingested a traditional meal of a hamburger and fries or cheesecake. Olive oil was found to have the same impairment to endothelial function as the rest of these high-fat meals.” And a 2007 study showed a similar detrimental effect on endothelial function after the intake of olive, soybean, and palm oils.

这么说,橄榄油对FMD有什么影响?所有的油脂,无论是来自动物还是来自植物的,往往都恶化内皮功能。在吃下脂肪几个小时内,动脉就会变硬,其舒张能力就会受损。1999年,有人做过一项研究,在吃下高脂饮食后测量FMD。该研究报告说:“受试者吃下传统的汉堡、油炸食品或乳酪蛋糕3个小时后,FMD就下降了。研究中发现,跟其他此类高脂饮食一样,橄榄油会同样对内皮功能造成损害。”另外,2007年的一项研究表明,在吃进橄榄、大豆和棕榈油后,对内皮功能有类似的损害效果。

 

Is Extra Virgin Olive Oil a Healthier Choice?

生榨橄榄油是更健康的选择吗?

 

In a cohort study designed to measure the effects of a Mediterranean diet as the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was shown to be better than regular olive oil, but neither significantly reduced heart attack rates. Other studies report similar findings, showing that EVOO damages endothelial function just like its ‘regular’ olive oil counterpart.

在一项旨在衡量地中海饮食作为心血管疾病主要预防手段之效果的队列研究中,生榨橄榄油(EVOO)显示出比普通橄榄油好,然而,它们都不能明显降低心脏病的发病率。其他研究报告了类似的发现,表明:完全跟“普通的”橄榄油同类一样,生榨橄榄油也损害内皮功能。

 

In the PREDIMED study, 7,447 people at high risk for cardiovascular disease were randomly placed into three groups. One group was told to eat a Mediterranean diet using only EVOO (up to 1 liter perweek!). The second group ate a Mediterranean diet and added a half-pound of nuts per week. The third group, the control group, was told to reduce fat intake (but it didn’t).

在地中海饮食预防医学研究(PREDIMED)中,7447名心血管疾病高危者随机分配到3个小组中:要求第一组人吃只使用生榨橄榄油(一周高达1升!)的地中海饮食;第二组吃地中海饮食另加每周半磅坚果;第三组是对照组,要求减少脂肪摄入(但它们没做到)。

 

After five years, the conclusions were stunning; there were nearly no differences between groups. No differences in weight, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, or lipid profile.

5年后,结论令人震惊:在各组之间,几乎没有差别。在体重、腰围、收缩压和舒张压、空腹血糖或血脂检查上,都没有差别。

 

And no difference in the number of heart attacks or deaths from cardiovascular disease; those in the EVOO group suffered just as many heart attacks and cardiovascular disease as those in the control group. (There was a significant reduction in the number of strokes, but that reduction was greater in the group that ate nuts.)(to be continued)

在心脏发作的次数或因心血管疾病而死的数量上,也没有差别;吃生榨橄榄油的一组,跟对照组中的人,遭受完全一样多的心脏病发作和心血管疾病。(在中风数量上有明显的减少,但在吃坚果的那一组中,减少得更多。)(未完待续)



举报 | 1楼 回复